What is kidney stone ? symptoms, causes, treatment, medicine, damage and treatment Various info Studytoper

Ashok Nayak

What is a kidney stone? Kidney stone symptoms, causes, treatment, medicine, damage, and treatment.

Table of content (TOC)

Kidney stone is solid coagulation made up of minerals and salt.  Its size can be as small as a grain of sand and as large as a golf ball.

Kidney stones are considered to be one of the most painful medical conditions.  Kidney stones can affect any part of your urinary tract - from your kidneys to your bladder.

As long as the stone remains stable in the kidney, there are no symptoms.  Once it exits the ureter from the kidneys, symptoms begin, such as very severe pain.

Diet, being overweight, some diseases, and some medications are among the many reasons for kidney stones.

The passing of kidney stones can be quite painful, but usually, there is no permanent stone loss if identified on time.  Depending on your situation, you do not need to do anything except drink lots of water to pass kidney stones (you may be given a pen killer).  In other cases, surgery may be required.

How to identify kidney stones? (Symptoms of appendicitis) -

Symptoms of kidney stones do not occur as long as they remain stable inside the kidney. Symptoms occur when they start going inside the kidney or into the ureters (tubes connecting the kidneys and bladder). 

If the stones get stuck in the ureter, it can stop the flow of urine, causing the kidneys to swell and cause cramps in the ureter, which is very painful.

Once the condition reaches here, these symptoms can occur:

  • Severe, severe pain under the ribs, in the side and in the back
  • Pain that is intermittent and sometimes mild
  • Pain or burning sensation in the urine
  • Pain that spreads to the lower abdomen and genitals

Other signs and symptoms of kidney stone may include:

  • Pink, red or brown urin
  • Fever and chills if there is an infection
  • Smell in urine
  • Need to urinate continuously, urination more often than usual or decreased urination at once
  •  nausea and vomiting

As the stones move into the urinary tract, appendicitis may change side-by-side, for example, may be in a different location or may be more severe.

Kidney Stone Causes 

Following are some of the reasons for kidney stones -


Some people are more likely to have kidney stones due to heredity.  Kidney stones can be caused by high levels of calcium.  High levels of calcium in the urine can be passed down from generation to generation.  Some rare genetic diseases can also cause kidney stones such as tubular acidosis or problems digesting certain body chemicals such as cysteine ​​(an amino acid), oxalate (a salt of an organic acid) and uric acid and other chemicals.


If a person is susceptible to the formation of stones, they may be at high risk from animal protein and salt.  However, if a person is not susceptible to the formation of stones, they are probably not at risk from the diet.

Underlying diseases

Some chronic diseases are related to the formation of kidney stones such as cystic fibrosis, renal tubular acidosis and inflammatory bowel disease.

geographic location

Your place of residence may also be responsible for kidney stones.  Kidney stones are very prevalent in India, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana, Delhi and parts of Rajasthan.  Living in an area of ​​hot climate and insufficient fluid intake can cause stones.


People taking diuretics and high calcium antacids may have higher calcium levels in their urine, which can also cause stones.  Vitamin A and Vitamin D can also increase calcium levels.  Indinavir medication to treat HIV can cause indinavir stones.  Apart from this, some medicines can also cause stones.

Kidney stones risk factors 

Women with low estrogen levels and women who have ovaries are more likely to have kidney stones.

  • Dehydration (by drinking less water).
  •  Men between the ages of 30 and 50 are more likely to have kidney stones.
  •  obesity.
  •  Dietary intake of high protein, salt, or glucose.
  •  Hyperthyroidism condition (excess of parathyroid hormone in the bloodstream).
  •  gastric bypass surgery.
  •  Inflammatory bowel disease that increases calcium absorption.
  •  Diuretics, seizure medications and calcium-based antacids.
  •  A family history of kidney stones may increase your risk of having stones.
  •  Having a history of kidney stones also increases the risk of it.

Prevention of Kidney Stone 

Following are the ways to avoid kidney stones -

Drink more water

Water dissolves the substances present in the urine that cause stones.  Drink so much water daily that you get 2 liters of urine.  Drinking some citrus drinks like lemonade and orange juice can also help you.

Do not take stone foods

Beetroot, chocolate, spinach, tea and most nuts contain oxalate, and cola contains phosphate which makes both stones.  If you are suffering from stone problem then your doctor may advise you to avoid these foods or take them in moderation.

Take calcium

Taking less calcium can increase the level of oxalate which can cause kidney stones.  To prevent this, take the required amount of calcium according to your age.  Try to get calcium from foods because not taking calcium supplements can also cause stones.

Take less sodium

Due to excess sodium in the diet, stones can form because it increases the amount of calcium in the urine.  That is why reduce the amount of sodium in your diet to avoid kidney stones.  According to current guidelines, sodium should not exceed 2,300 mg a day.  If you have previously had kidney stones from sodium, try reducing your daily intake of sodium to 1500 milligrams.

Limit animal protein

Eating foods such as red meat, poultry, eggs and seafood increases uric acid levels which can cause kidney stones.  Excess of protein in the diet also reduces citrate levels (a chemical present in urine that prevents stone formation).

Diagnosis of Kidney Stone 

Kidney stones are diagnosed in the following ways -

Imaging test

Imaging tests may show kidney stones in your urinary tract.  Imaging tests include abdominal X-rays, CT scans, ultrasound, a non-invasive test and intravenous urography (which involves Dye injection into an arm vein and images of X-rays or CT scans on your kidney and bladder.  Stones are detected from).

Analysis of passed stones

To get the stone you may be asked to urinate through a strainer.  Lab analysis can explain the cause of your kidney stones and your doctor can make a plan to use this information and prevent the formation of kidney stones.

Blood test

A blood test checks for more calcium or uric acid in your blood.  Blood test results are helpful in checking your kidney health and other medical conditions.

Urine test

A 24-hour urine collection test may show that your urine contains too many stone-forming minerals, or that there are fewer substances that prevent the formation of stones.  For this test, your doctor may ask you to collect two urine for two consecutive days.

Kidney Stone Treatment 

Following are the ways to treat Kidney stone -


Drug relief may be required for pain relief.  The presence of infection can be treated with antibiotics.  Other medicines are -

  • Allopurinol (for uric-acid stone)
  •  Duretic drugs
  •  Sodium bicarbonate (for sodium citrate)
  •  Phosphorus solution


Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy uses sound waves to break up large stones so that they travel from your ureter to the bladder.  This procedure may be uncomfortable and may require anesthesia.  It can also cause indigo on the lower abdomen and back and can cause blood leaks around the kidneys and organs.

Percutaneous nephro lithotomy

In percutaneous nephrolithotomy (Percutaneous nephro lithotomy) stones are removed through a small incision in your back and this may be necessary when -

  • The stone obstructs and infects or damages the kidneys.
  • The stone has become so large that it cannot be passed.
  • Pain cannot be controlled.


When the stones are stuck in your ureter or bladder, your doctor may use a device called an ureteroscope.  In this, a small wire with a camera is inserted into the urethra that goes into the bladder.  A small cage is used to remove the stones and sent to the calculus laboratory for analysis.

Kidney Stone Complications 

Stones do not always remain in the kidneys, sometimes they go from the kidneys into the ureter.  The ureters are small and fragile, making it difficult to get stones.  The passage of stones in the ureter may cause spasm and blood in the urine.

 Sometimes stones stop the flow of urine.  This is called urinary obstruction which can cause kidney infection and kidney damage.

Types of Kidney Stone in Hindi

There are four types of kidney stone:

Calcium Stone

Calcium stones are the most common type of kidney stones.  They may be made of calcium oxalate (the most common), phosphate, or melate.  The risk of developing this type of stone can be reduced by eating less oxalate foods.  Oxalate is high in potato chips, peanuts, chocolate, beets and spinach.

Struvite Stone

This type of stone is mostly found in women suffering from urinary tract infection.  These stones can become large and cause urinary obstruction.  These stones are caused by kidney infections.  Treating a basic infection can prevent the development of Struvite stones.

Cystine Stone

There are very few cases of cysteine ​​stone.  It occurs in men and women who have a genetic disorder cystinuria;  A genetic disorder in which the stones formed by the amino acid cysteine ​​form in the kidneys, ureters, bladder).  In this type of stone, cysteine ​​(an acid that occurs naturally in the body) leaks into the urine from the kidneys.

Uric Acid Stone

This type of kidney stone is more common in men than women.  It is more likely to occur in people suffering from gout problems or undergoing chemotherapy.  These types of stones occur when the amount of acid in the urine is very high.  Diets rich in purine can increase the level of acid in the urine.  Purine is a colorless substance present in animal proteins such as fish, shellfish and meat.

  • Get lab tests done for kidney stones test

FAQ for kidney stone

See the answers to common questions on kidney stones.

1. What is the size of the stone present in the kidney?

Kidney stones usually begin at 5 mm in size, which can be easily removed from the urinary tract.  There is no pain or very little pain in this process.  Experts say that there are usually less stones of large size in the kidneys.

2. Can kidney stones be fatal?

It is difficult to say whether a patient may die due to kidney stones.  However, in some cases it is seen that the patient has died due to kidney stone.  For example, it can be understood that the urethra is blocked due to kidney stones, causing the infection to spread and bacteria cannot exit the body.  Apparently, in such a situation, if the patient is not treated as soon as possible and the septic is not eradicated, the patient's condition may become critical.  It can even happen until his death.  But if the stone is small in the kidney of the patient, then it is not a serious matter.  It can be easily treated.

3. Which disease is caused by kidney stones?

There is usually no other disease due to kidney stones.  Yes, kidney stones cause problems in many parts of the urinary tract.  It needs to be treated at the right time.

4. What is ureteric calculi calculus?

Two ducts originate from the kidney, a right ureter and a left ureter.  Stones usually form in the kidneys.  But when the stone enters the ureter from the kidney, it becomes a ureter stone.  The size of the stone that goes from the kidney to the ureter is usually 3 to 6 mm.  Symptoms like vomiting, nervousness, intermittent urination, burning sensation and frequent urination, as well as bleeding in case of ureter stones.  It does not affect any particular age group but can happen to anyone.

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